The municipality is the community of persons living in a limited portion of land. This may be a single town or group of several villages. At an administrative level, the municipality is made up of a group of local representatives which has the goal of managing the area and ensuring the smooth running of the municipality The municipality is under the control of the Minister of the Interior. In total, there are 116 in Luxembourg. They form three different administrative districts: Luxembourg, Grevenmacher and Diekirch.
Municipality power is exercised by the Conseil Communal (Commune Council) and the Collègue des Bourgmestres et Echevins (Association of Burgomasters and Deputy Burgomasters).
In each commune, there is a Conseil Communal (Commune Council). The Conseil communal is directly elected by the inhabitants of the commune and represents the Commune. The commune councillors are elected for six years. The number varies according to the commune’s population.
It is the decision-making body, deciding on all matters purely of commune interest: commune assets, income, expenditure, works to be carried out, etc. It draws up the internal administration regulations and commune police orders. It lays down traffic/building regulations and decides on the construction of roads. It appoints the commune secretary, the commune funds collector, commune employees and members of social offices, amongst others.
Le Collège des Bourmestre et Echevins
This is the commune executive and administration body. The members of the Collège are elected councillors. It is responsible for enforcement of laws and police regulations (under the supervision of the district superintendent). It is responsible for publishing and executing the decisions of the conseil communal and manages assets, income, expenditure, commune establishments, commune construction work, the fire service, etc. It also constitutes a State body: it draws up registry office deeds, keeps civil status registers and registers tax cards. The Burgomaster or one of his deputies appointed by him holds the position of Registrar.
He is appointed by the Grand Duke. He chairs the conseil communal and the collège échevinal. He signs all the commune regulations, correspondence and commune and burgomaster declarations. He ensures that police regulations and the laws are enforced. He is registrar and officer of the investigative police.
Compulsory Commune Committee
Each commune must have a rent committee and a schools committee.
The Rent Committee:
It is composed of three full members and two alternate members. The chairperson will be taken from amongst the members of the Collège or the Conseil Communal, one of the members from amongst the landlords and one from amongst the tenants of the commune. This committee has the power to set rents in the case of a request to increase or decrease rents.
The Schools Committee:
It is composed of the Burgomaster (chairperson), a priest and three lay members. Amongst the lay members, there is one father of a child and one mother of a child attending primary school in the commune. The purpose of this committee is to ensure compliance with class times, ensure good attendance and oversee equipment, infrastructure, etc.
The Foreigners’ Consultation Committee:
When a commune has at least 20% of foreigners amongst its population, it is required to have a foreigners’ consultation committee which is responsible for foreign residents (informing them about what is happening in the commune, particular with respect to Grand-Ducal regulations).
The Commune Services
A commune has several services, which assist the collège des Bourgmestre et Echevins in the tasks for which it is responsible. In each commune, there is:
- The Registry of Civil Status:
- The population office
- Commune secretary: draws up the minutes and deliberations of the Conseil Communal and the Collège des Bourgmestre et Echevins. Does the accounts in all transactions for which the commune authorities are responsible. He or she plays a key role in the Administration.
- The commune funds collector: carries out all commune collections and pays for expenditure as voted by the Conseil communal.
- Several commune workers.
The largest communes have other services (for example, Luxembourg City):
- The social assistance office
- Pipes Service
- Traffic Service
- Hygiene Service
- Fire and Ambulance Service (in the largest communes)
- Land Planning Service
- Industrial Services